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1530: Ivan IV (the Terrible) was born. He was crowned first Tsar of Russia in
1547 and expanded the Russian state with campaigns against the Tartars. He earned his description from his oppression, in which more than 3,000 were executed.
1900: Writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, playing for MCC in his first first-class match, bowled out the great WG Grace who was batting for London County.
1919: The world’s first scheduled air flights began, between London and Paris.
1928: Anfield’s famous Kop terracing at Liverpool’s football ground was opened. It was most likely named after the Battle of Spion Kop in the Boer War. The word “kopje” means small hill.
1960: The 17th Olympic Games opened in Rome, at which Briton Anita Lonsbrough won gold in the 200m breaststroke. The light-heavyweight boxing gold medal was won by an American youth named Cassius Clay.
1978: The Shroud of Turin went on show for the first time on the high altar at St John’s Cathedral in Turin.
1985: Pop singer Michael Jackson paid $25 million for an ATV catalogue of music which included copyright of 5,000 songs, many by the Beatles.
1985: A re-enactment of the Battle of Edgehill by the Sealed Knot Society turned into the “real thing”, and Warwick General Hospital filled up with costumed Cavaliers and Roundheads waiting for treatment of battle scars.
1989: The spacecraft Voyager, completing its 12-year voyage to Neptune, sent back pictures of Triton, its moon, and revealed two additional moons previously unknown to scientists.
2008: GB’s triumphant Olympians flew home from Beijing with 19 golds and the nation’s best medal haul for 100 years.
2012: Voyager 1 spacecraft entered intersellar space becoming the first man-made object to do so.
2012: Olympic gold medal hero Mo Farah celebrated his second double success of the summer after his wife gave birth to twin girls.
ON THIS DAY LAST YEAR: Plans were revealed to erect a permanent memorial to mark the centenary of the end of the First World War in Manchester.
BIRTHDAYS: Sean Connery, actor, 89; Frederick Forsyth, novelist, 81; Martin Amis, author, 70; Gene Simmons, rock musician (Kiss), 70; Elvis Costello (Declan MacManus), rock musician, 65; Tim Burton, film director, 61; Billy Ray Cyrus, singer, 58; Joanne Whalley, actress, 55; Claudia Schiffer, supermodel and actress, 49; Blake Lively, actress, 32; Ray Quinn, actor, singer and dancer, 31.